Majoring in Psychology in Uni: Polytechnic vs Junior College Route

Disclaimer: The invited writers are both students from NTU and may not be accurate about some claims about the other universities. This will solely be based on their perspectives and current experiences. Do scroll below for their profiles.

After receiving your 'O' levels results, one of the most commonly-asked questions is:
Junior College (JC) or Polytechnic (aka 'Poly')?

Image Credit: http://www.sgclub.com/self-improvement/studying/quiz-should-i-go-to-polytechnic-or-junior-college/
You might want to pursue Psychology in the polytechnics, but worry that it might not be the best route to get you into university. You are not that sure what you wish to do for the rest of your life, and decide that going to a JC could give you 2 extra years to ponder. You contact friends you haven’t talked to in a million years just to get their opinion. Somehow, you’re still unconvinced.

In order to ensure that O-Level graduates with a keen interest in Psychology can make a more informed decision, Min and Xavierlyn will share their experience of getting into university via the Polytechnic and Junior College routes respectively.

Points
Min (Poly)
Xavierlyn (JC)
Conclusion
Getting into University
Yes, it is no secret that it is much tougher to get into university via the poly route. In fact, I’ve only seen poly mates who have gotten Diploma with Merit (or scored really really well) around school.  
About 75% of my batch were offered courses into a local university.

Statistics by MOE have reflected a higher number of Junior College students across all courses in local universities.
JC
For a higher chance of entering local university, choose the Junior College route.
Transition into University
The transition from poly to university is not that huge of a change.

The poly curriculum is rather similar to the university curriculum, in the sense you’ll be taught to be self-disciplined and not be spoon-fed by your educators.

However, this is not to say that poly students will transition into university quite easily. My psychology course in the poly emphasized a lot on group projects, writing and applying knowledge into real world situations. There was little emphasis on exams, to the point whereby exams are just there for the sake of being there and lecturers usually explicitly tell you what chapters will be tested.

In university, I was unpleasantly required to memorise a whole textbook in 1 week and puking its contents out for a 2-hour paper.
To find out more, read my other post - From Polytechnic to University
In Junior College, timetables are created for you and practice resources are made easily available, just like in secondary school. University was thus a huge cultural change for me as you are suddenly required to be in charge of your own learning after 12 years (primary school to JC) of spoon-feeding.

Additionally, universities do not release past year papers for practice so you have to master your content well on your own.

While the JC curriculum trains application skills, most exam answers are based on memorisation or practice. This may differ from person to person but personally, I think you can afford to do a bit of last minute studying in JC.

On the other hand, in university, you have to be consistent as no one is going to remind you to hand in your assignments or check the progress of your work unlike in previous years of schooling. It may take quite some time getting used to balancing assignments and tests that may all occur in the same week.
Poly
Choosing the poly route does give you a taste of university life before it begins, but it is only a slight taste. Most poly students still need time to adapt to university life.

JC

Choosing JC where schedules are similar to secondary schools might make it difficult to adapt to university where there is a lot of independent learning.
Modules
In recognition that the poly curriculum offers electives and knowledge outside of one’s course of study, in NTU, eligible poly students are allowed to exempt 20 MCs worth of modules. In translation, this is about 4 modules, which can also translate to one semester’s worth of exemption. NUS FASS also allows module exemptions for students from polytechnics.

This is crucial because one of the consideration for going to poly or JC is the extra year one needs to spend in poly. But hey, if done correct, you’re just spending an extra semester.
In NTU, you have to fulfil General Education Module (GERPE) requirements. JC students have to take 5 modules while poly students can choose to take 3.

Poly
If you do not mind taking an extra semester while in the pursuit of your interest, poly is a considerable route to take.

JC
If you do not mind fulfilling more General Education modules and wish to save a semester worth of time, choose the JC route.
Skills
I’d say that poly psychology students do have a slight advantage in terms of course-related skills.

We come into university equipped with the ability to write 2000 words essay with APA citation in 1 week (some, the night before the deadline). We’ve had 3 years worth of psychology concepts drilled into us.

However, it does not put us in too much of an advantage. Coming to university, I realise that some of the things poly taught me are either wrong or insufficient.
Students have to take Project Work (PW). While this might train critical thinking, I did not learn how to write a proper research paper or the different writing formats (MLA, APA, etc). Even though there are compulsory writing modules available in NTU (I believe NUS has these as well) in Year 1, writing a proper research paper requires time, and practice which poly students already have exposure to.
Poly
If you prefer skill-based learning and/or want to have more exposure to writing proper research paper before university, poly would be a more suitable option.

JC
While in JC, you spend 2 years learning to remember and apply concepts. This would be useful when it comes to studying for heavy content subjects in university.

Advice from Xavierlyn:
For students hoping to take Psychology through the JC route, it is important to note that JC is not a one-way ticket to university. You still have to work hard for it.

Advice from Min:
For students who are interested in taking Psychology through the poly route, be sure to research extensively (SG Psych Stuff website is a good start). On several occasions, poly students may realise that Psychology is not what they had thought it was. If you’re certain that Psychology is what you want to do for the rest of your life and you’re confident that you can score well enough to get into university, poly would be a considerable route to take.
All in all, there is no right or wrong. You might think that poly is wasting one year of your life, but that one year might just be a year of gaining more knowledge. You might think that JC students would adapt to uni life more slowly than poly students, but the truth is that we all start from square one.
This is an invited post by Xavierlyn Tan and Min Khoo. Here's their profiles:

Xavierlyn Tan, NTU Psychology major
Hi I'm Xavierlyn (Xav for short!), turning 20 this year and I'm passionate about mental health and hope to work in the mental health sector one day. I enjoy volunteering at IMH every Saturday morning. I hope more youths would actively seek to disperse their stereotypes towards the mentally ill :)



Min Khoo Ming Gui, NTU Psychology Major
Min is a psychology undergraduate at Nanyang Technological University, holding an NTU Scholarship. She graduated from Ngee Ann Polytechnic in 2016 with a Diploma with Merit in Psychology Studies.

An active volunteer at AWARE Singapore, she enjoys cosplaying, harajuku fashion, photography and gaming. She sees herself as well-balanced between academics, hobbies, and real-world skills and experiences.


From Polytechnic to University: For Psychology Students

Note: This is an invited post by Min Khoo, currently a NTU Psychology Major.

So, let’s say that you decide to go for the polytechnic route and made it through with a GPA high enough to qualify you for a local university (after giving up on sleep, leisure and social life).  Now, we all know how hard it is to get into university via the polytechnic route, thanks to the restriction on the number of polytechnic graduates who are allowed into local universities.  But let’s just say you did not die from all that studying.

While you wait for your university life to start, you wonder:

  • How will university be different from your old polytechnic life? 
  • Will it be a competitive environment? 
  • Would all the JC students already have someone to eat lunch with while you are stuck on your own? 
  • Will you have an advantage with that 3 years of knowledge of psychology you possess?
As a polytechnic graduate who made it through a year of university, the fact that I am still alive should qualify me enough to give you some advice.

So, let’s start with the main concern on everyone’s mind:  Academics.

You might have heard that polytechnic students have an advantage over the JC students because they possess some knowledge of psychology prior to enrolment.  You might have also heard that polytechnic students would adapt faster to the university curriculum because they are used to completing assignments on their own without being spoonfed.

But here’s what you haven’t heard.


Polytechnic lecturers tend to give you hints and let you know what chapters will come out during the exams.  University professors expect you to memorise the whole textbook in 1 week.
Majority of polytechnic lecturers still spoonfeed you whenever they can.  University professors sometimes don’t even know your name.
Polytechnic lecturers teach you a theory by a psychologist, university professors tell you that that theory has flaws and is no longer applicable.  Polytechnic stats seem like primary school’s math compared to the horror known as Level 2000 stats.

Okay, it’s not that bad.  Compared to non-polytechnic students, some aspects of university will simply feel like a revision.  But that is only for the first year or so.  Seriously, university curriculum is no joke.  Think of the worst part of polytechnic life, and the worst part of JC life.  Now combine them.  That’s university life for you.

Other than academics, the other aspects of university life is typical of the general population.

Social life:  If you’re not best friends with your diploma with merit polytechnic schoolmates (because I saw only one or two non-diploma with merit peeps in university), you might find yourself in a classroom with hardly anyone you know.  But it varies from individual to individual.  Some students have friends outside of polytechnic who then enroll into the same major as them.  Some students are really extroverted and social, and are immediately friends with everyone from day one.

Extra-curriculum activities:  At this point, extra-curriculum activities are optional.  The university is not going to turn the time and effort you put into such activities into points and rank you on a scale of bronze, silver and gold.  However, it would look good on your resume.  But on the other hand, school assignments are already making you stock up on bags and bags of coffee.  

My advice?  Concentrate on your school work during the school terms.  Busy yourself with many activities or internship during your 3 months (yes, you heard right. 3 months) holiday.

In short?  Don’t expect the transition to be easy, but do not fear that the transition would be too tough.  Keep your expectations realistic, and be prepared to do a lot of learning on your own.

This is an invited post by Min Khoo Ming Gui, a currently NTU Psychology Major.

Min is a psychology undergraduate at Nanyang Technological University, holding an NTU Scholarship. She graduated from Ngee Ann Polytechnic in 2016 with a Diploma with Merit in Psychology Studies.

An active volunteer at AWARE Singapore, she enjoys cosplaying, harajuku fashion, photography and gaming. She sees herself as well-balanced between academics, hobbies, and real-world skills and experiences.
www.minkhoo.com
www.instagram.com/minhimesama

Brenda: Emotional impact and Support for Cancer Patients

When people hear the word ‘cancer’, all negative thoughts will always flow into their minds.  To most people, it signifies terminal illness despite increasing numbers of real cures as well as meaningful remissions.  For many cancer patients and their families, the cancer journey is always an intensely stressful moment.  It can be rather difficult to identify and honor the feelings.  Therefore, emotional support is always important for most cancer patients during their cancer journey.  Not to be forgotten, different supports from various organizations, people and services may improve cancer patients’ mental and physical health.

Fear, sadness, anger and other emotions, with vulnerability, anxiety and even depression will surface during the cancer journey for cancer patients and their family members.  The distressed feelings of uncertainty, questions, and concerns about responsiveness to cancer treatments, life changes within family, friends, work and routines, worries about mortality as well as confusion about meaning and purpose in life can fill up cancer patients’ mind.

The mind-body connection with unresolved, painful thoughts and feelings can cultivate disconnect internally and externally.  Without the capacity to identify, and express the mental and emotional reactions, cancer patients can reject themselves and others.  Any suppressed emotions can become toxic to the physical body too.  Ongoing perceived loneliness with a sense of isolation also supports detachment, dissociation, and disconnect.

Similar to Kubler-Ross model, the five commonly recognized stages of cancer grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance.  However, not everyone experiences all stages or goes through them in a certain order.  Denial is a coping mechanism to help an individual survive news that is difficult to handle.  During the anger stage, people always start questioning ‘Why did this happen to me?’ or ‘What did I do to deserve this?’.  Next, people will try to bargain to prevent future losses by changing their lifestyle of even promising God that they will change their behaviour in exchange for good health.  However, sadness or depression will always attack cancer patients upon diagnosis and affecting their mood, energy levels, motivation, and daily lifestyle.  Finally, when cancer patients accept their cancer diagnosis, it may not necessary mean that they have completely let go of their grief.  They may revert to other stages again.
This is where a social worker, counsellor and doctors can help cancer patients to wade through all information and make decisions during this distressing moment.  Information is a powerful antidote to fear and anxiety. Hence, open communication serves important role between patients and caregivers during the cancer journey. 
Doctors share different available options to patients and the pros and cons of the treatments options.  This helps patients to have a better understanding of what they will go through and make a decision that best fit in to their situations.  Emotional support creates connection and kindness to cancer patients is medicine.  Talking to other cancer patients and survivors often help to alleviate stress and depression.  There are a lot of cancer support groups available these days, be it in the hospital or other welfare organizations that provide a safe place for cancer patients to share experiences with others who are dealing with or have experienced cancer.  Social workers often are the people who will work closely with patients and the family members.  They often help to collaborate and identify solutions to their problems, ranging from financial difficulties to family issues.

Learning about available resources is also needful.  Community resources provide support and assistance in order that individuals and families may better cope in the long run.  Other than community hospitals, family service centres (counselling support) and social service office (financial support), there are other organizations aim to provide support for cancer patients in various aspects.  They are:

  • Singapore Cancer Society (home care, financial, psychosocial and bereavement support, rehabilitation programme, cancer support groups, family, and youth engagement)
  • Children Cancer Foundation (back-to-school service, caregiver support, emotional and financial support, palliative and bereavement support, academic and learning support)
  • Breast Cancer Foundation (mammogram sponsorship, education, and empowerment programme, befriender, enrichment programme, wig loan, talks, prostheses and bras sponsorship)
  • 365 Cancer Prevention Society (day activity centre, emotional and financial support, nutrition assistance, gatherings and outings, lymphatic detox exercise and detox dance, health education)
  • Leukaemia and Lymphoma Foundation (treatment cost subsidy, befrienders, and emotional support)
  • Brain Tumour Society Singapore (financial and emotional support, support group, befriender) 
  • AINS Society (emotional support, financial support, enrichment programmes for patients and families)
  • Assisi Home and Hospice (in-patient care, home care, day care)
  • Bright Vision Hospital (in-patient care, rehabilitation centre, TCM clinic)
  • Dover Park Hospice (in-patient care)
  • Hospice Care Association (home care, day care)
  • Methodist Hospice Fellowship (home care, spiritual and emotional support)
  • Metta Hospice Care (home care, spiritual care, medical equipment loan)
  • St Joseph’s Home (In-patient care, spiritual support)
  • HCA Hospice Care (home care, day care) (psychosocial, bereavement support, palliative and young caregivers programme, home care equipment loan)

 To sum it up, it is challenging for cancer patients to walk through the cancer journey alone.  Many times, the diagnosis of cancer brutally reminds us of our own finality.  It may sometimes a blessing to use the time of illness to think about death and dying in terms of ourselves, regardless of whether the patient will have to meet death or get an extension of life.  Families, friends, and health professionals play different roles to support cancer patients.  As sociologist Margaret Mead once said: “A small group of thoughtful people could change the world.’’  The more we support the family as a unit or the people who support the patient, the better we are at helping the patient throughout the whole process.

Challenges in the Social Work Field

Note: This is an invited post by May (pseudonym), an experienced social worker in the field.


Social workers are primarily concerned about the well-being and functioning of individuals and families, and work to empower the individuals to be better equipped to handle their issues.  In Singapore, social workers are employed in various settings, which include youth, family, prisons, hospitals, and special needs.  At the same time, they are also employed to look at shaping larger level policies, and how these policies are implemented to the ground level.  Social workers are very often associated with being volunteers - as being people with huge hearts and "give people a fish".

Societal views of the work as a social worker
However, how our society views this profession is an important perspective to think about, which is something that isn't always talked about, even in school.  Why is this so?  The people who will end up studying and aspiring to be social workers are from, well, that same society.  Acceptance of the society's views is a mindset that will challenge the student's perspective as well.

Being the "quick fix" to clients' issues
On a day-to-day basis, social workers face unreasonable demands  -  as there is an expectation that they are the "quick fix" solutions.  "Quick fix"'solutions administered for clients are almost always finite, with a stringent assessment process, and an interim solution to tie over a period of time where they are expected to still work on being more self-reliant, which inevitably frustrates people who view 'help' as an instant solution.

What social workers really do
What social workers actually do is to look at how various systems in the environment affect people, help people navigate these systems, as well as look into how systems can be improved.  This is done with a core value of empathetic and intentional listening, in a non-judgmental and objective way.  Advocacy for clients that are vulnerable or unable to access resources and systems is also an integral part of the work.  As with any other job, social workers deal with disagreements, emotional upheavals, expectations from various people, and have to always be mindful of their clinical interventions.

Staying motivated at work
Having to deal with so many concurrent issues is virtually impossible to do alone, and the concepts of individual and group supervisions and team work help to provide support to the social worker in managing dynamics, clinical interventions, and the emotions evoked when dealing with a multitude of issues.  This support from peers and supervisors is very helpful in motivating the growth of the social worker, regardless of years of seniority and experience.  It is important for social workers to keep up with positive attitudes and work hand in hand with different parties to build up a better community  -  and to constantly keep themselves motivated and purpose driven, to maintain themselves in this profession.

Jerry O.: Effect of Social Media on Suicides

The number of suicides that occur worldwide stands at almost 800,000 yearly, making it the 17th leading cause of death in 2015 (World Health Organisation, 2015) and with the increase in the publicity of suicides, it is now a major global health issue.  The relationship between suicide and the internet and in particular social media is very complex and various researchers have tried to find out if social media hinders or encourages death by suicide.  Studies have shown that even though there is no direct link between social media and suicide, there is some degree of interaction between them.

Image Credit: http://screenrant.com/suicide-squad-skrillex-rick-ross-song/
The social media is a hub of information and one can easily find information on any subject simply by typing the search words and suicide is not an exception.  There is a huge repository of information on suicide on the internet and there are many pro-suicide chat rooms and forums which provide very detailed information about suicide and even the methods that can be used.  There are so many ways by which social media can contribute to an increase in the tendency to commit suicide.

The nature of human interactions is such that the chunk of our deductions and understanding of people’s behaviour comes from things they do not say.  That is to say human communication relies more on nonverbal communication that the actual exchange of words.  The heart and soul of our interactions are the gestures, eye contact, tone of voice, facial expressions, body language, and posture and so on.  We are able to fully understand what a person is saying by comparing the words they use with the nonverbal signs that we observe, we can tell if a person is excited, sad, hiding something or if they are relaxed.

Image Credit: https://safeguarde.com/spy-phone-social-networking-cause-teen-suicide/
On social media however, these nonverbal signs are replaced by smileys and emoticons so they may as well be absent because you cannot actually tell that the person sending you a grinning smiley is actually grinning, for all you know they may be wearing a scowl on their face.  Social media gives people the opportunity to be anything they want to be; they may be depressed in real life and be very chatty online, they may be crying and be using all the happy emoticons and smiley.  So, unless a person opens up to you and shares their pain you will not know they have any unlike in face-to-face interactions where you can pick up that someone is being bothered by something and they are more likely to open up if someone asks them.  Likewise, there is no way to tell if a person is contemplating suicide via social media interactions unless they tell you because online interactions are grossly lacking in the nonverbal cues we already mentioned.

Social Media Influencing Suicides

Another problem with social media that can increase suicidal behaviour is cyber harassment and cyber bullying.  When various internet media are used to intentionally and continuously harass or threaten a child or teenager or even an adult, it is termed cyber bullying, cyber harassment or cyber stalking and it is a very serious problem.  The media used to perpetrate these acts include text messaging, instant messaging, e-mail and social networking sites where people get “trolled” maliciously.  These acts place negative pressure on the recipients thereby intensifying their lonely feelings, hopelessness, instability and isolation which is made worse in people who are already under intense psychological or emotional stressors and increases their risk to commit suicide.  A study by Hinduja and Patchin (2010) showed that middle school children who had been cyber bullied were two times more likely to attempt suicide that others who were not.  It also showed that offenders of cyber bullying were 1.5 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were neither targets of nor offenders of cyber bullying.

Furthermore, there have been reports of strangers who met on bulletin boards and chat rooms or forums deciding to commit suicide on the same day.  This is called "Cybersuicide pact" and the first documented case was reported in 2000 in Japan where the suicide rate is still on the increase.  This problem is a major topic for discussion on the internet and it is suspected that its impact in precipitating or encouraging suicides lie in the fact that people of like minds are able to share their stories and then push each other in the direction they want. These boards also provide information on the various methods that people can use to commit suicide thus making it much easier for people to kill themselves.

Another point worthy of note is the media contagion effect.  Suicide contagion refers to a state in which suicidal behaviour spontaneously sweeps across a particular group of people and this affects people who are less than 25 years old more than other ages.  When certain people are exposed to information about suicide through any means, this may influence their decision to kill themselves.  In some cases, chat rooms and bulletin boards create memorial pages for those who die by suicide and for the impressionable minds;  this may push them towards committing suicide.  The reason being that users also want to be idolized by those who had already committed suicide and so they get a few minutes of fame even if they are dead.  This problem has more deep seated psychological problems that are merely augmented by the social media.

Contrariwise, social media also contributes in some ways to the prevention of suicide.  There are social networking pages that provide interactions between people with similar stories to help prevent suicides, provide help lines and provide awareness about suicide prevention.  Some of these pages include the American Foundation of Suicide Prevention and the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline which can both be found on Facebook.  There are also several groups on Twitter and even blogs that are dedicated to providing information vital in preventing suicides.  Also, Google and Yahoo also have features that serve as proactive suicide prevention links; when a person uses a search word that indicates suicidal intent, links are displayed at the top of the result page about the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline.  These features can provide help to a person who is contemplating suicide.
In Singapore, Samaritans of Singapore (SOS) is the main suicide prevention centre which helps people in crisis, thinking of suicide or affected by suicide. Their number is 1800-221 4444 (24 hours).

World Suicide Prevention Day 2017 (by Samaritans of Singapore)

The research into the role of social media in pro-suicide behavior does not have enough data to draw a clear-cut relationship although evidence suggests there is a link and the whole world is beginning to sit up and take notice.  Therefore, it should be the responsibility of every user of social media to ensure that they do what they can to prevent suicide by sharing information on suicide prevention help lines on their time lines and when people post contents that  may suggest that they are contemplating suicide, it should be taken seriously.

For more posts on Social Media on SG Psych Stuff:
SGPsychStud:  Networking on Social Media
Jerry O.:  The Influence of Social Media on Behaviour
Jerry O.:  Why People Are Into Social Media